Alan Silverside's Lichen Pages

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Image, identification and ecology links

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When I first started this site, there were relatively few other general lichen image sites around (though Einar Timdal's and Ulrich Kirschbaum's sites were already invaluable and inspiring). Now there is a multiplicity of good, reliable sites and undoubtedly there are more top-quality sites that I have not listed. Ideally, there would be a search engine that indexed these sites, but if one exists, I don't know of it. At one time, Ed Uebel and Doug Greene produced an index to lichen images on the Internet, but their site is apparently long gone, and such an index would be a formidible task today.

It's a forlorn and desperate person who tries Google's image search, so there is little alternative to systematically going through the sites listed below for any given species. I give my own thanks to each and everyone who has produced these sites, as so often they have helped me solve my own mysteries.

British & Irish lichens - general  (see next section for image sites)

The British Lichen Society

Key information resource, with links, lists and downloadable articles as well as information about the BLS.

UK Biodiversity - lichens

Index to UK Biodiversity action plans.

Lichens of Wales (Alan Hale)

A well set out resource for Welsh lichens, with valuable accounts and illustrations of rare and threatened Welsh species.

Lichen Ireland (Ulster Museum)

Information on Irish lichens, including recording, checklist and maps.

Lichens of Ireland Project (Paul Whelan)

A major new resource on Irish lichens, information, excellent images and more to come.

Images - Britain and Ireland

British Lichens (Mike Sutcliffe)

A site that first started, I understand, in the same way as my own, i.e. displaying images from courses run by Brian & Sandy Coppins - sometime after mine but with considerably more drive and diligence. Now a major resource and the best first site to try when searching for a good, reliably named image of a British lichen. [Changed name from, which still directs to the same pages.]

Irish Lichens (Jenny Seawright)

A stunning new site, with beautiful photographs that include many high-Atlantic species.

BioImages - Virtual Field-Guide (UK) (Malcolm Storey)

A huge and authoritative site that includes many photographs of British macrolichens, but with them arranged taxonomically amongst non-lichenised fungi and time-consuming to browse.

BLS field meeting - Jersey 17.-24.3.2001 (R.Kricke & S.Louwhoff)

Photographs from the BLS Jersey meeting 2001: people, places and numerous noteworthy lichens. (Richard Burghause)

Includes some good photographs from BLS meetings (under "Workshop reports").

Images - Europe

The Lichen Herbarium, University of Oslo (Einar Timdal)

Information databases on Norwegian lichens and a large photographic gallery of many very high quality images at a choice of resolutions. (Changed URL, May 2009).

Lichen gallery (Leif Stridvall)

Very large and stylish gallery of excellent images, especially good for crustose species, but infuriating to attempt to navigate (always go back to the index link!) and with pop-up textboxes that follow the cursor and obscure whatever one is trying to look at on the page.

The lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Belgium, Luxembourg and northern France (Paul Diederich, Damien Ertz, Christian Ries & Emmanuël Sérusiaux)

Effectively a photo-flora of the region, very comprehensive and with photographs of excellent quality.

AFL - Association Française de Lichénologie

Includes a valuable and developing photographic gallery.

Nature-Bretagne - lichens (Brigitte Lorella and others)

Developing into a well-constructed reference site, of direct relevance for British species. Part of a larger photographic site at

Lichenes maritimi Armoricae: les lichens marins, maritimes et oceaniques des côtes de Bretagne (Alain Gérault and others)

French coastal lichens, especially good for species that in Britain are rare and south-western.

Mycologie et Lichenologie en Catalogne Nord

Fungi and lichens of the eastern Pyrenees and surrounding area. For lichen photographs, select "Lichens" from left-hand menu. [Beware, home page has intrusive advertising.]

Base de Dados da Biodiversidade dos Açores — Líquenes

List of lichens of the Azores, many with photographs (most or all by Felix Schumm) – valuable for many species rare in Britain and not covered on other sites (and, yes, includes Cladonia azorica!). [I follow 'Flora Europaea' here in treating the Azores as part of Europe.] Part of a large Azores biodiversity site at

Galerie Lecanoromycetidae

A Czech site with a useful collection of mostly good quality photographs. Part of a major image gallery at

Flora of Iceland

Includes extensive gallery of lichen images, good for boreal species (also for non-lichenised fungi).

Flechtenbilder (lichen pictures) (U. Kirschbaum)

Large gallery of good quality images from central Europe, including the Alps.


Appears to be a Latvian site, with valuable pictures of northern-continental taxa.

Pictures of Aegean Lichens (H. Sipman)

Extensive gallery, mostly close-ups.

Flechtengalerie / Lichen Gallery (Matthias Schultz)

Numerous good, close-up photographs, arranged in ecological groupings (indexed). European and world.

Flechten und lichenicole Pilze (Paul Hofman)

A growing gallery of good quality images, many crustose, but unordered. [Click "Photo-Übersichtstabelle" for an index to page locations.] Part of a major image gallery at

ITALIC - The Information System on Italian Lichens (S. Martellos & P.L.Nimis)

Registration required, but search for images directly accessible at

Líquenes de Almería [Spain]

Started as a 'blog', with photographs published each month, good for crustose species. Reformatted and now with an index — an increasingly useful site.

[Russian lichenology]

I wish I could understand more of this (though Babel Fish helps!). Index to images at

[Estonian Lichenology - Key Nature]

Images of Estonian lichens, keys and other resources.

Mousses (Bryophytes) et Lichens (Patrick Libourel)

French site with a number of photographs - part of a large photographic site including many fungi, home page at [Link removed due to unacceptable level of intrusive advertising]

Identification, taxonomy and keys - Britain & Europe

De Nederlandse Cladonia's (Laurens Sparrius)

Comprehensive set of excellent images of Dutch Cladonia species, with keys (in Dutch).

Key to the Usnea species in Europe (T. Törra, T. Randlane & A. Saag - Key Nature)

Interactive key with excellent close-up photographs.

The lichen order Caliciales: Calicium, Chaenotheca, Cyphelium, Microcalicium, Sclerophora, Thelomma (Jørn Middelborg)

Keys plus ecological and other information; very few photographs.

A key to common lichens on trees in England (P.L. Nimis, P. Wolseley, S. Martellos)

On-line and printable, pictorial keys to 76 species.

Images - microscopy

Le Naturaliste Forum - lichens

The lichen section of a larger and impressive French forum devoted to the posting of high quality close-up and micrographic images - main forum index page at

Flechtenmikrokopie (M. Guwack & R. Wagner)

Emphasis on photomicrographs, downloadable as non-printable pdf files after clicking through copyright agreements, etc. In German and English.

Images and identification - World

Lichens of North America

Companion site to the monumental book, 'Lichens of North America' by I.M. Brodo and S.D. & S. Sharnhoff. Information resource and many beautiful images.
A list of corrections to 'Lichens of North America' is given at

Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria

Substantial index of images.

Online Lichenology of Iran (MYCO-LICH)

Excellent photographic gallery and resource site, useful worldwide.

Pictures of tropical lichens (A. Aptroot & L. Sparrius)

Substantial and authoritative gallery of tropical lichen images.

Lime loving lichens key (Eastern Lichen Network, NYBG)

Key and information on calcicolous lichens in eastern North America.

Lichens of Grand Traverse County, Michigan (Julie Medlin)

Photographs and brief descriptions.

The Hidden Forest

Photographs of lichens, non-lichenised fungi and other crytogams of New Zealand forests.

Checklist of the Lichens of Australia and its Island Territories

Includes image galleries, but the apparent thumbnail images are actually the full-size images shown at reduced size, and so there is a very long wait for the index pages (approx. 12 MB) to load. Further, they do not have separate titles that are visible after loading with Firefox (pop-up titles visible with Internet Explorer but these cannot be seen beforeloading!). Includes a link for lichenicolous fungi.

Lichen research program at UMFK (S. Selva, University of Maine at Fort Kent)

Compilation of information on Canadian Caliciales, including image gallery.

Michigan State University (MSC) Lichen Collection

Various accounts, keys, photographs.

Wayne's Word: Crustose Rock Lichens (W.P.Armstrong)

Part of an extensive set of on-line articles on lichens, plants, their denizens, etc. Use the supplied links and index for other lichen pages. Should this page vanish, try

The foliicolous lichen homepage (R. Lücking)

That's foliicolous, not foliose, so the site refers to those lichens that grow on leaf-surfaces, a feature especially of tropical rainforests. Checklists; keys; taxonomic, biodiversity and ecological information; lichenicolous fungi on foliicolous lichen hosts. lichen pool (various photographers)

A gallery on the well-known photo-sharing website and with the accent on quality photography, not identification. Nevertheless there are discussion threads and some good images of individual lichens, named or not, and excellent representations of lichen habitats.


OPAL air survey

The current British air quality survey, designed for schools and other groups, using lichens for biomonitoring. See an on-line video of Pat Wolseley!

The USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regions Lichens and Air Quality Home Page

Excellent and very comprehensive information resource on air pollution and lichens.

A guide to AIR QUALITY MONITORING with LICHENS (William C. Denison, 1973)

Illustrated guide, using lichens on twigs - for use in the American Pacific Northwest.

Target lichen species for 6-zone air quality monitoring system in northwestern Washington and southwestern British Columbia (F.M.Rhoades, 2000)

Includes photographic identification guide.

Biomonitoring of air quality using plants (A.Mulgrew & P.Williams)

Includes extensive reviews of lichens as biomonitors of gaseous, metallic and organic pollutants.

Other resource link pages

Internet Resources for Bryologists and Lichenologists (American Bryological and Lichenological Society)

Good list of links to worldwide lichen resouces, including checklists, ecology, herbaria, societies, journals.

Lichen resouces (University of Georgia)

Page of links for a "Liking Lichens" Teacher Quality Workshop.

Welcome to the World of Lichenology

Links to resources, information on the International Association of Lichenologists and a small gallery of images.

Lichen determination keys available on INTERNET (H. Sipman)

Links to numerous keys, though few directly applicable to the British Isles/Western Europe.

Lichens (Natural History Museum, London)

Formerly a simple but useful, illustrated account of lichen biodiversity and air quality, but now has very little, beyond one photograph with (26.05.2010) a mis-spelled Latin name. A very poor effort from our national museum; link retained here only as it includes an interactive key to lichens on twigs at (click the appropriate initial image to begin).

Plantlife: publications

Source for information on lichen conservation in Britain, downloadable versions of some attractive publications.

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© A.J. Silverside
Uploaded May 2008, last fully revised (all links checked) May 2010, last updated January 2013 (first hosted at, January 2003)