Images of British Lichens
Parmelia sulcata Taylor
(incl. Parmelia encryptata A.Crespo, Divakar & M.C.Molina)
Thallus foliose, blue-grey (becoming bronze when old and semi-moribund), with conspicuous, white pseudocyphellae forming networks on the lobe surfaces. On older thalli, the pseudocyphellae develop into irregular, laminar soralia. Widespread and common on branches and trunks of trees and less often on rocks.
Refs: Smith et al. (2009), 653; Purvis et al. (1992), 425; Dobson (2005), 302-303 (photo); Dobson (2011), 305 (photo); Jahns (1983), 198-9 (photo); Whelan (2011), 121 (photo); van Haluwyn et al. (2009), 98-9 (photo); van Herk & Aptroot (2004), 276-277 (photo); Valcárcel et al. (2003), 280-1 (photo); Hansen & Anderson (1995), 46 (photo); Wirth (1995), 2: 646, 663 (photo); Wirth et al. (2004), 97 (photo); Wirth, Hauck & Schulz (2013), 2: 810, 811 (photo); Frahm et al. (2010), 122 (photo); Moberg & Holmåson (1984), 94 (photo); Holien & Tønsberg (2008), 57 (photo); Nordic Lichen Flora (2011) 4: 89, 163 (photo); Stenroos et al. (2011), 306 (photos); Pope (2005), 34 (photo); Brodo et al. (2001), 483 (photo); Hinds & Hinds (2007), 340 (photo); McCune & Geiser (2009), 225 (photo); Lichen Atlas of the British Isles 1: 1022 (1995).
P. encryptata is a newly described "species" distinguished from P. sulcata by molecular data, arbitrarily calculated genetic distance and a strictly cladistical species concept - see Molina et al. (2011) Lichenologist 43: 585-601. Although separable by gel electrophoresis, it is not yet known to have any morphological or ecological validity and its clade is incorporated without difficulty within a broader concept of P. sulcata. It is impossible to know whether any of the photographs below represent this taxon, which I consider a synonym of P. sulcata, deserving, at most, infraspecific status as a chemical variant.
Lichenicolous fungi on P. sulcata include Marchandiomyces corallinus and Nesolechia oxyspora.
|On Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), Kindrogan, Perthshire, March 2008|
|On Grey Sallow (Salix cinerea ssp. cinerea) in carr, Wicken Fen, Cambridgeshire, April 2006|
|Kindrogan, Perthshire, April 2002 (material with apothecia)|
|Kindrogan, Perthshire, April 2003 (mature material showing laminar soralia developed along the lines of the old pseudocyphellae)|
|Kindrogan, Perthshire, April 2002 (Trebouxia photobiont)|
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Uploaded April 2008, last updated September 2013 (first hosted at www-biol.paisley.ac.uk, January 2003)