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Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach.


Thallus foliose but attached at one point and appearing fruticose, lobes often net-veined above, white beneath, soralia initially rounded, marginal and/or laminal, later more extensive over thallus surface; apothecia rare (but shown here!), shortly and stoutly stalked, discs red-brown. Widespread and generally common on deciduous trees and frequent on old wooden fencing, more rarely in other habitats, including dunes where it can be terrestrial.
Thallus typically pale yellow-green (presence of usnic acid) but occasionally lacking usnic acid and pale grey without the yellow-green tints, this variant being forma herinii (Duvign.) D.Hawksw. (see photograph below).

Refs: Smith et al. (2009), 397; Purvis et al. (1992), 247; Dobson (2005), 171-2 (photo); Dobson (2011), 177-8 (photo); Jahns (1983), 190-1 (photo); Allen (2007), 41 (photo); Whelan (2011), 94 (photo); van Haluwyn et al. (2009), 140-1 (photos); van Herk & Aptroot (2004, 2013), 176-177 (photo); Wirth (1995), 1: 390, 392 (photo); Wirth et al. (2004), 58 (photo); Wirth, Hauck & Schulz (2013), 1: 471 (photo), 472; Frahm et al. (2010), 155 (photo); Moberg & Holmåson (1984), 82 (photo); Holien & Tønsberg (2008), 43 (photo); Nordic Lichen Flora (2011) 4: 51, 154 (photo, printed too dark); Stenroos et al. (2011), 16 & 216-7 (photos); Valcárcel et al. (2003), 188-9 (photo); Brodo et al. (2001), 313 (photo); McCune & Geiser (2009), 123 (photo).

Lichenicolous fungi on this host include Unguiculariopsis lettaui.

FGBI: http://fungi.myspecies.info/all-fungi/evernia-prunastri

 
Evernia prunastri
Kindrogan, Perthshire, March 2008
 
Evernia prunastri, with apothecia
Evernia prunastri, with apotheca
With apothecia, Taymouth, Perthshire, April 2002
 
Evernia prunastri, young colony
Evernia prunastri, close-up showing marginal soralia
Grey variant (f. herinii), Pembrey, Carmarthenshire, July 2006
 
Evernia prunastri, marginal soralia
Slapton, Devon, August 2011, showing non-delimited marginal soralia


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© A.J. Silverside
Uploaded March 2008, last updated January 2016 (first hosted at www-biol.paisley.ac.uk, January 2003)